When talking about pediatric cancer there are many terms and acronyms that you may be unfamiliar with so we will try to explain some of them  on this page.


ANC- Ratio of neutrophils to other white blood cells in the system. THis ration gives the doctors an idea of when the child is recovering from chemotherapy.


Antibody Treatment- Immunotherapy where antibodies attach to neuroblastoma cells, the immue system then kills the foreign antibodies and the neuroblastoma cell attached to it.


Avascular Necrosis- Death of an area of bone due to lack of blood flow, can be a loss of roundness in the femur bone.


Blood Counts- Lab tests that show the levels of different blood cells and compounds in the blood stream, specifically hemoglobin, platelets, and ANC


Bone Marrow Biopsy and Aspirations- Procedure where doctors put a hollow needle in the pelvice bone and take out a core sample of the bone marrow and draw some blood from the bone that has bone marrow cells mixed in for testing.


Bone Marrow Transplant- Intense chemotherapy to kill neuroblastoma that also destroys bone marrow, bone marrow needs to be restored by infusing patient's previously collected stem cells


Bone Scan- Nuclear medicine scan that shows places of intense turn-over of the bone.


Broviac Catheter (Central Line)- A catheter in the big vessel of the heart for medication administration and blood draws


Chemotherapy- Single or cocktail of drugs designed to kill cancer cells


Cis Retinoic Acid- Immunotherapy oral drug that tells neuroblastoma cells to mature


COG- Children's Oncology Group. A group of children's hospitals that facility research trials


Complete Response- No Evidence of Disease (NED) after therapy


CT Scan- slices of x rays put together to create a 3D image of your child, This scan allows the doctors to see in detail an area that may have disease or some other concern.


Frontline Therapy- the best known therapy for a particular disease


Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)- Test to determine kidney function


Hematology- The study of blood disorders


Hem/Onc- Hematology/ Oncology. In many hospitals these are paired in the same unit when it comes to pediatric cases.


Hemoglobin- levels tell amount of hemoglobin (biologic substance that carries oxygen) in the red blood cells. Low hemoglobin levels may make a child very tired and pale


Histology- Cellular level makeup of a tumor


Homovanillic Acid (HVA)- An acid found in a child's urine at small normal non cancer levels. Neruoblastoma excrete the acid giving an indication of the level of neuroblastoma activity. Usually paired with VMA


Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG)- blood product from donors, rich in antibodies, that recognizes and helps fight certain infections.


Metastatic Disease- Cancer that has spread to multiple parts of the body from the primary tumor


MIBG-Metaiodobenzylguanidine- radioactive dye that is absorbed by Neuroblastoma. One type is used for scanning, a different type and dose may be used for therapy


MIBG Scan- radioactive scan to test for Neuroblastoma


MIBG Therapy- radioactive treatment for Neuroblastom, only available at a few hospitals


Minimal Residual Disease- bulky tumors are gone, only a minimal amount of disease left


MRI- a detailed scan that uses magnets not radiation


Mucositis- mouth sores, like canker sores, that appear in the mouth and throat, a painful side effect of chemotherapy. May also have a thick white film covering the tongue, cheeks, and throat that makes it difficult and painful to swallow.


NANT- New Approaches to Neuroblastoma Therapy- a group of universities and children's hospitals who research potential tretaments for Neuroblastoma


Neuropathy- an injury of the nerve endings that cause tingling in the hands and feet. Severe neuropathy includes pain up the legs and arms


Neutropenic- ANC that is below normal, patients are more susceptible to germs and catching bugs while neutropenic


Neutrophils- The white blood cells most critical to fighting germs


NMTRC- Neuroblastoma & Medulloblastoma Translational Research Consortium- group of universities and children's hospitals who research treatments for Neuroblastoma


No Evidence of DIsease (NED)- Scans and tests show no evidence of any cancer


NPO- Nothing by mouth, no food or drink


Oncology- The study of Cancer


Packed Red Blood Cells- Blood product given when hemoglobin is low


Partial Response- The drug removed a measurable amount of disease but not all of it.


Petechia- Small blood extravasations into skin, looking like red spots, that may occur when the platelet levels drop below normal.


Peripheral Stem Cell Harvest- Procedure to take stem cells out of the blood to be used later to recover from bone marrow transplant


Platelets- Part of the blood system that allows the blood to clot, if platelets are low patients may bruise and bleed easily


Port-a-Cath- Port for short, A type of central line that stays under the skin, the port is accessed with a needle


Primary Tumor- The place the cancer started. For Neuroblastoma this is commonly on an adrenal gland.


Progression- When the disease gets larger or more extensive instead of smaller.


Radiation Therapy- Radiation to the primary tumor bed and other areas of concern


Remission- When Cancer is completely eradicated by treatment and stays away


Stage of Disease- A way for doctors to classify cancers and determine appropriate treatment.


Toxicity- Severe side effects.


Transfusions- When a blood product is given into the vein.


Treatment Protocal- Specific sequence of medications and tests used for particular disease therapy.


Vanillylmandelic Acid- An acid found in your child's urine at small normal non cancer levels. Neuroblastoma excrete the acid giving an indication of the level of Neuroblastoma activity, usually paired with HVA


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